The term is most often used medically when the rest of the penis, scrotumand perineum are without ambiguitysuch as hypospadias. Micropenis can also occur as part of many genetic malformation syndromes that do not involve the sex chromosomes. It is sometimes a sign of congenital growth-hormone deficiency or congenital hypopituitarism. Several homeobox genes affect penis and digit size without detectable hormone abnormalities. Most eight- to fourteen-year-old boys referred for micropenis do not have the micropenis condition.
Such concerns are usually explained by one of the following: Growth of the penis both before birth and during childhood and puberty is strongly influenced by testosterone and, to a lesser degree, the growth hormone.
However, later endogenous hormones mainly have value in the treatment of micropenis caused by hormone deficiencies, such as hypopituitarism or hypogonadism. This usually induces a small amount of growth, confirming the likelihood of further growth at puberty, but rarely achieves normal size.
No additional testosterone is given during childhood, to avoid unwanted virilization and bone maturation. There is also some evidence that premature administration of testosterone can lead to reduced penis size in the adult. Penile growth is completed at the end of puberty, similar to the completion of height growthand provision of extra testosterone to post-pubertal adults produces little or no further growth.
In extreme cases of micropenis, there is barely any shaft, and the glans appears to sit almost on the pubic skin. This was especially likely if evidence suggested that response to additional testosterone and pubertal testosterone would be poor. With parental acceptance, the boy would be reassigned and renamed as a girl, and surgery performed to remove the testes and construct an artificial vagina.
This was based on the now-questioned idea that gender identity was shaped entirely from socialization, and that a man with a small penis can find no acceptable place in society. Former subjects of such surgery, vocal about their dissatisfaction with adult outcome, played a large part in discouraging this practice. Sexual reassignment is rarely performed today for severe micropenis although the question of raising the boy as a girl is sometimes still discussed.
A treatment option for micropenis is the insertion of a subcutaneous soft silicone implant under the penile skin.
Hypogonadism and testosterone replacement
The procedure was developed by urologist James J. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Classification and external resources. Criteria, etiologies and classification”. The Johns Hopkins medical journal.
Congenital absence of the vas deferens. Retrieved from ” www.florencecardinal.com? Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in. Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store.
A Harvard expert shares his thoughts on testosterone-replacement therapy – Harvard Prostate Knowledge – Harvard Health Publications
Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page. What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Cite this page. Create a book Download as PDF Printable version.