Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. It is the principal male sex hormone and the “original” anabolic steroid. The largest amounts of testosterone are produced by testes, but it is also synthesized in smaller quantities by the theca cells of the ovaries, the zona reticulosa of the adrenal cortex, and the placenta. Substantial amounts of the testosterone in women are also produced from estradiol by reverse aromatization in the liver, adipose cells, and other peripheral tissues.
In the testes testosterone is produced by the Leydig cells. Due to dual function of the male gonad testosterone directly influences spermatogenesis. Like most hormones, testosterone is supplied to target tissues in the blood where much of it is transported bound to a specific plasma protein, sex hormone binding globulin SHBG.
Effects of testosterone in humans and other vertebrates occurs by way of two main mechanisms: by activation of the androgen receptor directly or as DHTand by conversion to estradiol and activation of certain estrogen receptors. The T-receptor or DHT-receptor complex undergoes a structural change that allows it to move into the nucleus and bind directly to specific nucleotide sequences of the chromosomal DNA.
The areas of binding are called hormone response elements HREsand influence transcriptional activity of certain genes, producing the androgen effects. Androgen receptors occur in many different vertebrate body system tissues, and both males and females respond similarly to similar levels. Greatly differing amounts of testosterone prenatally, at puberty, and throughout life account for a large share of biological differences between males and females.
The bones and the brain are two important tissues in humans where the primary effect of testosterone is by way of aromatization to estradiol. In the bones, estradiol accelerates maturation of cartilage into bone, leading to closure of the epiphyses and conclusion of growth. In the central nervous system, testosterone is aromatized to estradiol. Estradiol rather than testosterone serves as the most important feedback signal to the hypothalamus especially affecting LH secretion.
In many mammals, prenatal or perinatal “masculinization” the sexually dimorphic areas of the brain by estradiol derived from testosterone programs later male sexual behavior.
In general, androgens promote protein synthesis and growth of those tissues with androgen receptors. Testosterone effects can be classified as virilizing and anabolic effects, although the distinction is somewhat artificial, as many of the effects can be considered both.
Virilizing effects include growth of the penis, formation of the scrotum, and deepening of the voice, as well as beard and torso hair. Many of these fall into the category of secondary sex characteristics.
When they occur to an unwanted degree in women they are termed “virilization” or “masculinization”.
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Anabolic effects include growth of musscle mass and strength, increased bone density and strength, and stimulation of height growth and bone maturation.
Testosterone effects can also be classified by the age of usual occurrence. For postnatal effects in both males and femaies, these are mostly dependent on the levels and duration of circulating free testosterone. In the first weeks of life for male infants, testosterone levels rise.
The function of this rise in humans is unknown. It has been speculated that “brain masculinization” is occurring since no significant changes have been identified in other parts of the body. Early postnatal effects are the first visible effects of rising androgen levels in childhood, and occur in both boys and girls in puberty. In males these are normal late pubertal effects, and only occur in women after prolonged periods of excessive levels of free testosterone in the blood.
There have been many pharmaceutical forms over the years.
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Forms of testosterone for human administration currently available in North America include testosterone cypionate and enanthate in oil for injection, methyltestosterone tablets for oral ingestion, and skin patches and a gel preparation for transdermal absorption. The original and primary therapeutic use of testosterone is for replacement in males who lack it hypogonadism.
When used for this purpose, the benefits of body development, physical strength, and mental energy can be dramatic and side effects rare. However, over the years, as with every hormone, testosterone or other anabolic steroids has also been given for many other conditions and purposes besides replacement, with variable success but higher rates of side effects or problems. Examples include infertility, lack of libido or erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, penile enlargement, height growth, bone marrow stimulation and reversal of anemia, and even appetite stimulation.
Anabolic steroids have also been taken to enhance muscle development, strength, or endurance. The latest development in testosterone use appears to be a reprise of the anti-aging claims. A number of physicians, supported by pharmaceutical manufacturers, are populatizing the concept that the testosterone decline of aging which they term the “andropause” is unnecessary and can be treated.
Explain it with Molecules How do Drugs Work? WHAT ARE THE BEST CULINARY SCHOOLS IN AMERICA? COLLEGES WITH FOOD SCIENCE PROGRAMS All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. Wikipedia is powered by MediaWiki, an open source wiki engine. Like other steroid hormones testosterone is derived from cholesterol. Effects of testosterone on humans. Early infancy androgen effects are the least understood. Advanced postnatal effects begin to occur when androgen have been higher than normal adult female levels for months or years.
Therapeutic use of testosterone. Testosterone Molecule – Pub Chem. Molecules of Life Resources. Periodic Table of Elements. Explain it with Molecules. How do Drugs Work? COLLEGES WITH FOOD SCIENCE PROGRAMS.
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.
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Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. It is the principal male sex hormone and the “original” anabolic steroid. To View the Testosterone Molecule.
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